Public Bills

Public Bills change the law as it applies to the general population and are the most common type of Bill introduced in Parliament. Government ministers propose the majority of Public Bills, those put forward by other MPs or Lords are known as Private Members' Bills.

Introduction of Public Bills

Public Bills are introduced in either House and go through a number of set stages that generally involve Members of both Houses examining the Bill.

Bills that are largely financial, or involve the public's money - like new taxes or public spending - are always introduced in the Commons.

When a Public Bill becomes law

Once passed into law, a Public Bill becomes an Act of Parliament. The conditions of Public Bills apply to the general public, such as a change to the national speed limit on motorways.

Voicing opposition to a Public Bill

Members of the public who want to voice their objections to Public Bills can do so by:

  • writing to their MP or a Lord
  • writing to the government department responsible for the Bill
  • lobbying Parliament
  • submitting evidence to the relevant Public Bill Committee

Related information

Government Bills: This is a term for a type of Public Bill, introduced by government ministers.

Private Members' Bills

This is a term for another type of Public Bill. It applies to all Public Bills introduced to Parliament by Members who aren't government ministers.

Public Bills before Parliament

View current Public Bills before Parliament.